Proportion and Scale: How to Use These Principles to Create a Cohesive Design

Think Interior
6 min readMar 4, 2023

Proportion and scale are two crucial principles that interior designers use to create a cohesive and balanced design. Proportion refers to the relative size of one object to another, while scale refers to the size object to its surroundings. Using these principles effectively can help you create a balanced and harmonious design.

You can learn about proportion and scale principles in interior design through an interior design academy. Many interior design courses cover these topics as they are essential to creating a cohesive and aesthetically pleasing space. Researching and choosing a reputable academy offering comprehensive interior design principles courses is always good.

Size and Shape

The first step to using proportion and scale effectively is to understand the size and shape of the space you are working with. Consider the height of the ceilings, the size of the walls, and the room’s overall dimensions. You should also consider the room’s function and the furniture and accessories that will be placed in it.

Once you understand the space clearly, you can start considering the proportions of the objects you will use in your design. When choosing furniture, for example, it’s essential to study the size of the room and the size of the other pieces of furniture. A large sofa in a small room can make the space feel cramped and uncomfortable, while a small sofa in a large room can feel lost and insignificant.

Balance in the Room

Another important aspect of using proportion and scale is to create a sense of balance in the room. It can be achieved using objects of similar size and shape in different room areas. For example, if you have a large sofa on one side of the room, you might balance it with a large painting or mirror on the other side.

Scale is also essential when choosing accessories and decor. For example, a small vase on a large table can feel lost and insignificant, while a large vase on a small table can feel overwhelming. When choosing accessories, consider the object’s size about the space it will occupy.

Hierarchy in the Room

Another important aspect of using proportion and scale is to create a sense of hierarchy in the room. It can be achieved by using larger objects as focal points in the room and smaller objects as accents. For example, a large artwork can be a focal point in a room, while smaller accessories can accent the space. In addition to the proportion and scale of furniture and decor items, creating a hierarchy in the room is essential to achieving a cohesive design. Hierarchy refers to the visual importance of elements in a space. The most important or prominent elements should be the largest or placed in the center of the room, while the less essential elements should be smaller or placed on the periphery. For example, the focal point of a living room should be the most significant and eye-catching element in the space, such as a fireplace or large piece of art. Other elements, such as seating and decor, should be arranged around the focal point to support and enhance it.

Individual Objects

In addition to using proportion and scale in the design of individual objects, it’s also essential to consider the relationship between objects in the room. Objects that are too close together can feel cluttered and overwhelming, while objects that are too far apart can feel disconnected and disjointed. Regarding proportion and scale, it’s not just about the relationship between objects in a room but also the individual objects themselves. For example, if a piece of furniture is too small for the space it’s in, it can look insignificant and out of place. On the other hand, if a piece of furniture is too large for the room, it can dominate the space and make it feel cramped. It’s vital to choose objects that are appropriately sized for the room, taking into account not just the dimensions of the space but also the other objects in it. Additionally, consider the visual weight of each object — some objects, such as dark or heavy ones, may appear larger than they are, while others, such as those with delicate or light designs, may appear smaller.

Consider the Function of the Space

The proportion and scale of furniture and décor should be appropriate for the room’s intended purpose. For example, a large sectional sofa may be perfect for a family room where people gather to relax, but it might overwhelm a small living room. When considering proportion and scale in interior design, it’s essential to keep the function of the space in mind. For example, in a bedroom, the bed is typically the focal point and should be proportionate to the size of the room. A small bed in a large room will look out of place and unbalanced, while a large bed in a small room will feel cramped and overwhelming.

Mix and Match Scales

Using items of different scales can add interest and visual depth to a space. For example, pairing a small accent chair with a giant sofa can create a balanced and harmonious look. Mixing and matching scales can add interest and visual appeal to a room. However, it is crucial to do so in a deliberate and balanced way. For instance, a large piece of furniture can be balanced with several smaller objects, or a small rug can be paired with larger pieces. It creates a sense of contrast and visual interest without overwhelming the space with too many objects or creating a feeling of chaos. It is also essential to consider the style and aesthetic of the room when mixing and matching scales. A modern space may benefit from clean lines and a more uniform scale, while a bohemian or eclectic space may benefit from a mix of scales and textures.

Think About the Height of the Room

The height of the ceiling can impact the overall perception of proportion and scale. In rooms with high ceilings, tall items like bookcases or art can help fill the vertical space and create a sense of balance. Conversely, in rooms with lower ceilings, sticking to lower-profile furniture and décor can help make the space feel more proportional. When considering proportion and scale, it’s essential to consider the room’s height. If a space has high ceilings, you can use more significant objects and furniture to fill the vertical space.

Conversely, if a room has lower ceilings, you’ll want to focus on smaller, more proportionate pieces that won’t overwhelm the space. You can also use visual tricks, such as hanging artwork closer to the ceiling or using horizontal stripes, to create the illusion of height in a room with lower ceilings.

Create a Focal Point

A large piece of furniture or artwork can create a focal point in an area and draw the eye. It can help establish a sense of proportion and scale by providing a visual anchor for the space. Creating a focal point is a vital aspect of proportion and scale in interior design. Drawing attention to a specific area or object in the room can help balance the space’s proportions. A focal point can be created in some ways, such as with a large piece of artwork, a statement light fixture, or a bold piece of furniture. When selecting a focal point, consider the object’s scale with the size of the room, and make sure that it doesn’t overpower the space or appear too small and insignificant. A well-placed focal point can bring a sense of balance and harmony to a room and help guide the eye around the space.

Don’t be Afraid to Edit

Sometimes, not as much regarding proportion and scale. If a piece of furniture or décor item feels too large or too small for a space, it may be worth removing it to maintain balance and harmony in the design. Regarding proportion and scale in interior design, knowing when to edit is essential. Sometimes, less is more. If a room feels cluttered or overwhelming, it may be because too many elements of different scales compete. Step back and see what can be removed or repositioned to create a more balanced look. Editing can also involve simplifying the color scheme or minimizing patterns and textures. Having a few statement pieces is okay, but they should enhance the overall design rather than detract from it.


Proportion and scale are essential principles that help create a cohesive and balanced design. By considering the size and shape of the space, using objects of similar size and shape, and creating a sense of hierarchy and balance, you can create a design that feels harmonious and comfortable. Whether designing a small apartment or an ample commercial space, these principles can help you create a functional and beautiful space.

You can look for the best online interior design courses free that focus specifically on proportion and scale or ones that incorporate these principles into a broader curriculum. With dedication and practice, you can become proficient in using proportion and scale to create stunning interior designs.



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